Insert Tab A into Slot B.

Congratulations; you've made it half way through this book and are now at the meat of day-to-day small public library operations — procedures. Clear, accurate, and up-to-date procedures are extremely important for every library. Procedures give you a place to start when training people, a reference to refer back to when you have not performed a task recently, and a reminder to everyone of how things are done increasing your consistency and making it easier for everyone to use the library. The number one rule of writing procedures is: don't assume anything. "The whole point of writing policy statements, regulations, procedures, and guidelines is to ensure that all library staff members understand the library's priorities, the rules that govern the provision of services, and the actual processes that are to be used when delivering those services."1

The biggest problem areas I find in libraries lie in cataloging and classification. Over time many errors and aberrations enter into the cataloging and the spine labels, but this can be fixed easily with a decent set of procedures so as times and employees change the library still consistently applies cataloging and classification rules, the same authorities are used for people and subjects, call number assignment does not vary, and local modifications to the Dewey Decimal System remain, such as placing all biographies in 921 instead of in the various subject areas (and make sure autobiographies always have the author listed as a subject). The process of processing materials needs to be succinctly and thoroughly written as well to ensure consistent placement and execution. When changes are made, they can be communicated to everyone through an updated procedure while old items are modified to match new materials. Once cataloging and processing are under control, focus on other aspects of library work such as shelving and shelf reading, hiring employees, customer service, and reference and reader's advisory. Many great staff training resources are available at Free Online Tutorials from the New Mexico State Library, Forms and procedural tips for personnel, public, and financial policies round out the chapter.


When learning cataloging, start with the manual and training for your automation system along with the booklet, Understanding MARC Bibliographic online at, from the Library of Congress. This low cost booklet, often available for free from your automation vendor, is worth its weight in gold. What Understanding MARC Bibliographic doesn't cover is handled at the Library of Congress' MARC 21 Concise Format for Bibliographic Data site,

Everyone should be cataloging; if an employee is willing to do it, let them. People besides the director should do the majority of the cataloging and all of the copy cataloging, i.e. copying MARC records from a union catalog or larger library's database. The Library of Congress makes their records freely available to libraries throughout the world and many small public libraries also can copy records from a regional system of cooperation maintaining a union catalog. If you can find the same item in a different format (regular print when looking for large print, audio cassette when looking for CD, VHS when looking for DVD), you can copy the existing record and then change what is different for the item you are holding. Make sure to adjust the 007 field, possibly simply copying the generic 007 info listed below. Save the director's or expert cataloger's time for dealing with cataloging problems and making certain all of the staff are cataloging consistently and working from the same procedures to keep your database clean and well organized.

The basic procedure to catalog a new item is:

1. Find another library that has already catalogued the item and copy their MARC record.
2. Once you have the bibliographic record, just add in your copy information and bar code number.
3. If you cannot find an existing record for the item, use the basic cataloging information below to create an original record for it.

Do not worry if you make a few small mistakes as people being able to find the item in the library is the most important thing. Upgrade records if you find a more complete or more accurate one to copy at a later date. Write out the exact procedures for finding and loading bibliographic records with your automation system, since these vary by the program you're using. Use this procedure to help train new cataloguers and as an easy reminder or cheat sheet for everyone.

When determining Dewey Decimal Classification numbers you usually can use the number assigned by the Library of Congress. Double check the number by looking in the stacks; where would the assigned number place the item, would people be likely to look for it there, and what other items are already in that area? Some titles are better classified with war than in the country where the battle occurred, i.e. how many people look under Somalia to find Black Hawk Down? Basic Dewey Decimal Classification information is available online at:

* Online DDC numbers for various subjects from Appleton Public Library at
* Summaries for the current version of DDC: 100's, 10's, and 1's, from OCLC at
* DDC 100's and specific others in Spanish from Weber County Library at

Basic Cataloging Information

For complete MARC information visit the Library of Congress at

indicators need to be included in front of the entry for the 245 field

the first indicator will be either a 0 or a 1 1 normally, 0 if no personal author in 100

the second indicator will be either 0, 2, 3, or 4 0 normally, 2 if title starts with "a", 3 if title starts with "an", 4 if title starts with "the"

Book Materials Must Include at LEAST these Fields (if available)

007 (for large print) tb

010 (LCCN - no dashes)

020 (ISBN - no dashes)

100 (main entry - personal name).

245 (title proper) :

b (rest of title if needed) /

c (statement of responsibility).

250 (2nd, 3rd, rev., or other) ed. - leave blank if it is a 1st ed.

260 (place of publication) :

b (name of publisher),

c (date of publication).

300 (number of pages) :

b (ill. if illustrated) ;

c (height - cm).

440 (series name). |v (volume number or sequential designation) - no period at end

650 (subject term - only use LC Subject Headings). - period only at end

plus |v form, |x general, |y chronological, |z geographic additions to the subject term

if author date of birth/death known, include 100 d (dates associated with name)- or .

if a summary available, include 520 (summary, abstract or annotation).

if co-author or illustrator, include 700 (personal name added entry).

Audio Materials Must Include at LEAST these Fields (if available)

007 (for CD) sd zsngnnmmned

020 (ISBN - no dashes)

028 (publisher number)

100 (main entry - personal name of author).

245 (title proper)

h [sound recording] :

b (rest of title if needed) /

c (statement of responsibility).

260 (place of publication) :

b (name of publisher),

c (date of publication).

300 (number of) sound cassettes or sound discs ((running time)) :

b digital or analog ;

c1/8 in. for cassettes or 4 3/4 in. for discs.

plus e any accompanying materials.

500 Abridged or Unabridged.

511 Read by (personal name).

650 (subject term - only use LC Subject Headings). - period only at end

plus |v form, |x general, |y chronological, |z geographic additions to the subject term

if author date of birth/death known, include 100 d (dates associated with name)- or .

if a summary available, include 520 (summary, abstract or annotation).

if co-author or performer, include 700 (personal name added entry).

Video Materials Must Include at LEAST these Fields

007 (for DVD) vd cvaizq

020 (ISBN - no dashes)

028 (publisher number)

245 (title proper)

h [videorecording] :

b (rest of title if needed) /

c (company, producers, writers, directors).

260 (place of publication) :

b (name of publisher),

c (date of publication).

300 (number of) videocassettes or videodiscs ((running time)) :

b sd., col. ;

c1/2 in. for tapes or 4 3/4 in. for discs.

plus e any accompanying materials.

511 (major performers).

650 (subject term - only use LC Subject Headings). - period only at end

plus |v form, |x general, |y chronological, |z geographic additions to the subject term

if a summary available, include 520 (summary, abstract or annotation).

if want to search by people involved include 700 (personal name added entry). for each

if want to search by companies include 710 (corporate name added entry). for each

Authority Control

Consistency is the single most important consideration in effective cataloging and an easy to use database. Fix any misspellings you notice in the catalog and search for and fix common typos as compiled by Terry Ballard at Browsing your catalog by call number or title allows you to find and fix many errors, i.e. fixing any titles being filed incorrectly under a starting article such as a, an, or the. Before entering any author, subject, series, or co-author; search the database to see if that entry already exists and, if it does, copy it exactly. Many library automation programs allow you to instantly check authorities and copy them while cataloging — ALWAYS DO SO. If this simply step is skipped, author searches will bring up several hits for one author which must each be examined in turn to discover the variant used when cataloging the item of interest. The same can be said for series and subjects, however always checking before entering data will mean only one entry for each author, subject, or series to follow in any search; make life easier for yourself and your patrons, always check!

Processing Suggestions to Make Your Life Easier

Decide and then communicate where you will place the barcode on each type of material. Placing it near the book's spine on the outside allows easy inventory without removing materials from the shelves and having to open each one of them. Cover the barcode with tape, Mylar, or a barcode protector to help hold it on and protect it from damage. Placing the barcode inside the case of material with multiple or removable pieces requires staff to open the case and actually look inside before checking the material in or out, increasing the chance someone will catch missing or damaged cassettes or discs and items in incorrect cases. Make sure everything going out of the library has the library's name, address, and phone number on it; every book, cassette, and disc. Buy rubber stamps, buy stickers, or print labels with library information on them and then stamp or label each piece which circulates.

Double and triple check to make sure what is on the spine matches what is in the catalog for each item, otherwise people looking up materials in the catalog will not have much luck finding them on your shelves. It works best if the spine label itself tells you where the item goes in the library and is easier for patrons trying to figure out your shelving scheme. Using NF above or in front of all of your adult nonfiction Dewey numbers and posting "NF = Non-Fiction" signs with arrows pointing to the correct area of the library makes going from catalog to book simple. Beginning all the juvenile or children's area books with a J — JB for board books, JE for picture books, JF or J for chapter books, JNF for nonfiction, JDVD for DVD's, JV for videocassettes, and JCD or JAC for audio books — lets you put signs up saying, "If it starts with J, head this way." directing people toward the children's area of the library. Reference titles can either be interfiled along with the rest of the nonfiction — put REF in bold and underlined at the bottom of the spine label — or filed separately in their own reference section — use REF instead of NF. Reference books should have stickers on the spine and on the front of them, highly visible and easily readable, which say, "This book does NOT leave the library." as people are no longer informed of what reference book means in a library context. Using REF allows you to use R for romance along with the other common genre designations: F or FIC for general fiction, M for mystery, W for western, etc.

For a cutter do not use just the first three letters of the author's last name, use the first six letters since people tend to shelve items by whatever is on the spine. More letters limits items being shelved improperly and allows you to avoid confusion with your Mac and Mc authors. Including a first initial for last names shorter than your cutter easily breaks up such common last names as Smith. If you want to follow proper shelving procedures, enter the cutter for all Mc authors as Mac making it much easier to train shelvers to file them as if they started with Mac, since the spine label actually does.

Shelving and Shelf Reading

Create a shelving procedure, which will also be used for shelf reading. Remind people of the reason we care about shelving and having items in their correct place, which once again is for the patron. It also helps us look better as library employees if we can go directly to the book on the shelf instead of having to hunt for a misplaced title. Perfectly acceptable shelving options including shelving series in order within your library and computer filing all the Mc authors after Maz. Include all options you choose in your procedures and be consistent. Remind shelvers that staff are always available to answer questions and they should never hesitate to ask if they're unsure; better shelved correctly than lost until the next inventory. Have new shelvers work through the introduction to Dewey and to shelving from Middle Tennessee State University at

Sample Shelving Procedure

It is most important to keep the items in the library in the correct location and order and also good to keep them arranged neatly on the shelves. If you see an item in bad shape, worn out, or damaged please pull it for replacement, repair, or removal.

When shelving,

1. first go to the correct area for each book and then
2. shelve by author's last name,
3. then first name,
4. then title (ignoring the three articles: a, an, the).

You can follow the spine label on the item to get you to the correct area and location and then watch to make sure the item is correctly shelved. All of the titles by James Patterson are shelved before any of those by Richard North Patterson (James comes before Richard). Within items by James Patterson, they are ordered alphabetically by title from A to Z (Along Came a Spider comes before 3rd Degree) always spelling out numbers. For items with no personal author (only an editor, company, anonymous, etc.), they are shelved as if their title were the author.

Items catalogued under the Dewey Decimal Classification System are shelved in order from smallest to largest number (364.378 is a smaller number than 364.7). Within the exact same number, books are ordered by the author's last name or the title if there is no personal author. The only exception to shelving by author are Biographies (921) which are ordered by the subject's last name (who the biography is about).

Training a New Shelver

Train — train — train. Have an experienced shelver, employee, or volunteer work with any new employees or volunteers for at least their first five times shelving in your library. A possible training schedule is as follows:

Day 1. The new person, trainee, watches the experienced person, mentor, shelve items while the mentor explains what the various spine labels and other coding means. At the end of this day, give the trainee a printout detailing what they have just seen to go over and, hopefully, keep it fresh in their mind until they return.

Day 2. Have the trainee shelve items while their mentor again explains your system.

Day 3. The trainee shelves and attempts to explain the system to their mentor as they go. Encourage the trainee to ask questions if they are unsure of where any item goes. The mentor intervenes after a mistake is made and discusses why it occurred with the trainee.

Day 4. Again, the trainee shelves items while explaining the system to their mentor.

Day 5. This could be anywhere from the end of their first week to four months later for volunteers working once a month. Test the trainee by having them shelve without being able to ask questions. Remind them of the correct procedure at any point where they incorrectly shelve. If there are prodigious mistakes, have the trainee shelve while explaining the system again, testing them after a few more days of training. If it never works, they always have the option to quit or volunteer in another area of the library.

Hiring a New Employee

General library employees need to be detail oriented, accurate, computer literate, and friendly; these traits are as important as previous library experience and perhaps more important. Advertise as widely as possible to give your library the best chance to attract a diverse and qualified pool of applicants: post your advertisement in your library, place it in local and regional newspapers, put it online, post it to library listservs, place it in library association job listings, and consider attending job fairs at library conferences. The advertisement states the job, hours, wages or starting wage, conditions of employment, contact information for your library, and any applicable closing date for applications. If you require an application form, mention where and how people may obtain one, placing a link to your form and to your library's web page in any online listings.

Review the applications and resumes you receive with an eye to the applicants qualifications. Discard any applicants who do not meet the minimum requirements and consider discarding applicants whose resumes contain typing mistakes and misspellings. Provide each discarded applicant a courtesy response thanking them for their interest in your position. Conduct short telephone interviews among the most promising of the remaining resumes and applications, asking about any unexplained gaps in employment history or other red flags. Figure out the applicant's interest and availability while seeing if they are flexible, approachable, computer literate, and friendly. "The best public libraries are busy, labor intensive work environments that require multitasking, energy, and flexibility," so "look for empathetic, warm, patient people who enjoy working hard."2 Ask set questions on each call and make notes regarding the applicant's answers. The applicant should be asking questions of you as well; answer them to the best of your ability and offer to look up things you do not know.

Personal interviews exist to find the best, most qualified candidate for the position. Be fair and impartial, taking notes on each candidate and asking the same questions, related to the open position and the work it entails, every time. Dig for the true reason this person wants to work in a small public library. Put the interviewee at ease and show interest in them and their answers. If anything is unclear to you, ask questions to clear the mists. Allow time for the interviewee to meet and talk with other staff at the library making sure to talk with your staff and consider their impression of the interviewee as well as your own. The interview is a test of verbal communication skills, interpersonal relationship skills, attitude, and professionalism. Pay attention to eye contact, body language, tone, and the answers to your questions; applicants need to be open, comfortable making eye contact, and show excitement and energy in their body language. Base employee selection on education, experience, the interview, and references — it is essential to check references!

Customer Service

"Staff should endeavor to serve each person uniformly and fairly, usually providing service first to the person who has taken the time to come into the library. All questions" and requests "should be considered legitimate, and no preference should be given, nor should service be withheld, based on age, type of question, status of the requester, etc."3

Write down samples of responses for typical situations, scripts, so library staff project a cohesive customer service "front" to patrons. When setting up scripts at your library, interview staff to find out what they say in typical situations and focus on letting the patron know what is going to happen and why. In general, you always want to promise the minimum you will do; it is then wonderful if staff exceed the minimum, but no one is left disappointed if they do not. Have everyone go over the proposed scripts to offer suggestions and make comments. When the scripts are completed to everyone's satisfaction, print out final copies and have each staff member read over them before the next staff meeting where you can split into pairs and role-play various library situations using the scripts. No one needs to memorize the scripts since it is more important to follow the scripts in spirit than to the letter. After two weeks of using the scripts in the library, gather again to make necessary revisions.

You can also set up service standards for staff such as:

* Answer the phone within three rings.
* Clean up messes as soon as you are done working on a task.
* Waiting time at the circulation desk is less than 5 minutes.
* Time spent with any one patron is less than 15 minutes.

See the example scripts below for samples of writing out what staff will say, always reminding everyone to follow scripts in spirit not to worry about memorizing them.

Welcoming People to the Library:


or Thank you.

[It sets a great mood to have a person recognize you as you are entering, even if it is only to say hello. Be willing to chat briefly with the patron.]

Answering the Phone:

(get to it as soon as it starts ringing if you aren't working with a patron):

Hello, _ Library. How may I help you?

Apologizing to an Irate Patron:

I am so sorry this happened. I can see why you would be upset. This is what I am going to do about it… I will check back with you later to make sure everything has been resolved to your satisfaction.

Approaching People in the Stacks:

Are you finding everything okay?

or How are you doing?

Bills/Fines Disputed:

Generally ask questions to give them time to think about it and you time to determine if the library did something wrong; questions such as: Did you renew these at all? How many times did you renew them? Who did you return them to? Where did you return them?

[If they are insistent they did not bring them back late or they already paid, forgive the fines and make a note of it in their record — everyone can get away with this once.]

Bills/Fines on their Account (under $5):

You have fines of ___. You can pay them at any time.

Bills/Fines on their Account ($5 to $20):

You have fines of ___. You need to pay some of your bill before you can check out.

[If they need to leave and get the money, put a note on their items to this effect and place them out of the way to await their return.]

Bills/Fines on their Account (over $20):

You have fines of ___. You will need to pay the fine down to under $5 before you can check out.

Calling on Holds or ILLs:

Hello, this is the _ Library. We have the material you requested waiting for you. Our number is _.

[Only mention the name of the material if you are talking directly to the person who requested it.]

Calling on Overdues:

Hello, our records show you have items overdue from the _ Library. Please return or renew these as soon as possible. Our number is _.

[If they renew the items, let them know what their new due date is and the amount of any fines.]

Complaints or Suggestions:

Please fill out this suggestion form and we will respond to your suggestion. Thank you for helping us make this the best library it can be.

[Try to resolve any complaint while they are in the library. If they are asking for new material, ask if they would like it to be held for them if we purchase it.]


Thank you for your donation. If we cannot use it in the library, it will be placed in the Friends book sale. Would you like a receipt?

[If people ask about the appropriateness of a donation, let them know we do not take magazines except for special collections and we do not take books in bad shape - moldy, torn, falling apart.]

If We Don't Have What They Are Looking For:

We don't appear to have anything like that here. Let me see if we can get it from another library for you.

[Place a request or ILL for them if possible.]

If We Don't Have What They Are Looking For (and a magazine article would suffice):

We don't appear to have anything like that here. Let me show you what is available through the _ database at _.

[Try to find an appropriate article using available databases.]

If You Have No Clue:

[Refer them to a staff member who might or take their name, number and question so the staff can work on it and get back to them. Use your resources, including other librarians.]

Memorials or In Honor Donations:

We have envelopes you can fill out so we have all of the necessary information. [Give them an envelope or card.] A notice that a donation was given by you will be sent to the family. Thank you.

Not Following Correct Library Behavior 1 (as set in place by a behavior policy):

That is not appropriate library behavior. This is your warning. If you have any further inappropriate behavior today, you will have to leave the library for the rest of the day.

Not Following Correct Library Behavior 2:

You have been warned. You need to leave the library now.

[Stay with them until they exit the building and then let everyone working know they are not allowed back that day.]

Overdues Disputed:

We'll check on the shelves to see if they are here. Please check around for us anywhere they might be at your place. Thank you for your understanding.

[Write down the patron name or ID and look for the materials the first chance you get: if you find the materials in the library, discharge them and cancel any fines; otherwise make a note on the patron's record that you searched. When we cannot find the materials and they are insistent they have returned it mark the item missing, make a note of this on their record and cancel their fines — everyone gets 2 vanishing act items a year, no more!]

Saying Good-bye to People Leaving the Library:

Have a good day/night/weekend.

or Enjoy your books/videos/etc.

** Photo ID not required for people you personally know. **

When Someone Has Lost Their Library Card:

We can give you a new one. It will cost you ___ and I will need to see a photo ID.

[For people without a photo ID, tell them they will need their parent or guardian to come to the library with their photo ID to get a replacement card for them.]

When Someone's Checking Out or Wants to Bill Something to Their Account:

[They need to have a library card or a photo ID we can use to look up their record.]

When Someone Wants a Library Card:

[They need a photo ID, or parent or guardian with photo ID, AND to either live in our service area, own property in our service area, have a library card from another library in the state, or pay a yearly fee.]

Reference and Reader's Advisory

Answer people's questions before they ask, whether it be with signage and information sheets or with a smiling face and asking if they're finding everything okay. Greet everyone using the library, reminding them from time to time that it is our job to help. Walk with the patron to the information and confirm they have found what they were looking for. They shouldn't have to seek us out to get help in using our services; we are here as a resource the community has decided to provide for all of them and they should use the library as best they can and take advantage of all it can offer. When answering questions, we can give information only and not advice so point patrons to books, articles, and web sites on legal, medical, business, and consumer questions, but do not advise them on what to do. If you would like to learn more about reference service, subscribe to LibRef-L at Another great listserv to work with, especially for those questions no one seems able to answer, is Stumpers-L available at

Reference Links

When placing links on your computers' screens or on your web site to the library's online public access catalog (OPAC) or to full-text databases, try to avoid using the name of the software or database you are using and instead create buttons or links letting people know what they can find, i.e. search for books or search for magazine articles. Many excellent reference links are collected at's Essential Reference Tools page,

Business Sites



Thomas Register.

Wall Street Journal.

Yahoo! Finance.


Microsoft Windows 98 Tutorial - Basic questions and answers about the common operating system. BayCon Group also has tutorials for Microsoft Word, Excel, Paint Shop Pro, Flash 5, RealSlideshow, and Scalable SQL.

Microsoft Windows XP - Set Up and Maintenance. - How to Use, multimedia and more on XP.

Mouse Exercises, Senior Net also has how to's for working with windows, cutting and pasting text, moving and hiding the task bar, and working with the task bar.

New Computer User Tutorial.

Tutorial Box. Tutorials for Microsoft PowerPoint, Word, Excel, Access and FrontPage. This links directly to the PowerPoint tutorial with links on that page to all of the others.

Genealogy Sites

Family Search.

List of Genealogy Sites.

State & County Resources.

General, follow the Repair Info link on the left.

Ben's Guide to Government Information, great place to start when trying to figure out everything the Federal Government publishes and does.

GPO Access, for when you have a handle on the Federal Government.

Internet Movie DataBase, who starred in what movie and all kinds of other movie info.

Kelley Blue Book, guide to new and used car prices and other vehicle information.

KidsClick! thousands of subject organized web sites for children, search lessons and tools, links searchable by keywords too!

Librarian's Index to the Internet - Ready Reference & Quick Facts, reference quick links collected by librarians for everyone.

List of Lists, any top 100, 10 or other list people might be interested in thanks to Gary Price's ResourceShelf. Maps and directions anywhere in the United States. Nationwide white and yellow pages online.

Weather Channel, forecasts and current conditions for anywhere in the U.S.


Aetna InteliHealth, up-to-date information from Harvard Medical School on diseases, lifestyle, and more.

Mayo Clinic Internet Health and Medical Resources, selected resources from a leader in the field, including links to clinical trials and rating sites.

Merck Manuals Online.


AARP Job Search, not just for retired persons, this site guides you through all of the steps involved in finding your next job.

Creative Job Search - Resumes, samples and worksheets people can fill in to create their own. - Cover Letters. is the largest single collection of job ads available on the Internet. It includes all the jobs from along with additional listings.

Local Newspaper Classifieds Online.


Legal Information Institute from Cornell University.

Searchable State Laws and Legislation.

United States Legislation Information from the Library of Congress.

Local Information

Links to Local News, Local Groups, Local Schools, Local and State Government, and Polling Places if possible.

Core Reference Material Lists

For prohibitively expensive items, consider purchasing editions a year or two out of date; many used sets are available through dealers or from other libraries.

Chilton's auto repair manuals, city directories, Consumer Reports buying guides, Consumer Reports new car and truck buying guides, dictionary, dictionary — large unabridged, Encyclopedia of Associations, Haines Criss+Cross Directory, maps, NADA car guides, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Statistical Abstract of the United States, telephone books, World Almanac & Book of Facts, world atlas, World Book Encyclopedia

Genealogy. Ancestry's Red Book, cemetery books or maps, county and town histories, family histories, Handybook for Genealogists, indexes to local newspapers, indexes to obituaries, Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses 1790-1920, Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy

Legal. Black's Law Dictionary, building code guide, divorce guides for your state, legal forms book such as Nolo's 101 Law Forms for Personal Use, Nolo's series of law books especially the Encyclopedia of Everyday Law, state case reports, state codes, state regulations, tenant / landlord law such as Nolo's Every Landlords Legal Guide

Medical. Consumer Drug Reference, Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, Merck Manuals, Physician's Desk Reference, Professional Guide to Diseases, Stedman's Medical Dictionary

Readability at a Glance

Level Sentence Length Length & Type of Words
Beginner 4-9 words mostly one-syllable, everyday words; rarely a two-syllable word
Intermediate 6-12 words mostly one-syllable words; some two-syllable, everyday words; rarely a longer word
Advanced 10-20 words mostly one-syllable words; some two-syllable words; some longer words

Reader's Advisory Links

There are many amazing and wonderful tools for connecting people with books freely available online. The Delton District Library collects great links for read-alikes and what's next in series — for children and young adult titles too — at their web site The Waterboro Public Library has an amazing collection of booklists and links to library lists available at For those brilliant movies based off of books, and vice versa, visit Mid-Continent Public Library's Based on the Book site at

Interview Tips

Follow these behaviors to improve the success of your reference and reader's advisory interviews:

* Smile
* Make eye contact
* Give a friendly greeting
* Sit or stand at eye level with the patron
* Speak in a relaxed tone
* Speak clearly
* Maintain eye contact
* Make attentive comments
* *Give them your full attention
* Do not interrupt them
* *Rephrase what you believe they are asking to confirm you understand them correctly
* *Probe with open-ended questions
* Keep the patron informed of what you are doing
* Go with the patron to the information or material
* Offer referrals if you cannot answer their question
* Check with the patron to see if they understand the answer
* *Follow-up to make sure their question has been completely answered
* Cite the sources where the information was found

  • = most important behaviors

See more on model reference behaviors and a checklist from Minnesota Opportunities for Reference Excellence at See more on the reference interview at, from William Robinson at the University of Tennessee.

Personnel Procedures

Sample Anti-Harassment Form

Harassment Complaint Form — CONFIDENTIAL

Thank you for bringing your concern to our attention. We will try to promptly resolve your complaint. Feel free to keep in touch during the investigation process. We will, to the extent appropriate, inform you of the results of the investigation. Discussing your concern with your supervisor initially often results in a successful resolution, however, where you believe your supervisor has engaged in or condoned activities that constitute harassment, you are not required to discuss this matter with your supervisor. Care will be taken to protect the identity of those making the complaint and of the accused person or persons, except as may be reasonably necessary to successfully complete the investigation.

Have you held a discussion with your immediate supervisor?


If there was no such meeting, what was your reason for NOT bringing it to your supervisor's attention?

If you did discuss this matter with your supervisor, please state your supervisor's response to the complaint:


Please state the facts, events and circumstances that initiated filing this complaint. Please give a complete description of the event(s) and statements made. Within this statement, please give the names of the persons engaging in the alleged harassment, the dates they occurred, witnesses to the alleged harassment and your response (attach additional sheets if necessary).

Please state action or change(s) you are seeking in order to resolve this complaint (attach additional sheets if necessary).

Signature: Date:

Confidentiality of People using the Library

All library employees need to know not to share information about what people check out, what questions they ask, and what they are looking at while in the library. You can ask people exactly what they are looking for, but you shouldn't pry into why they are looking for it, it is not your job to determine why or to deny them help based on their reasons for inquiry. When you call to inform someone a hold or interlibrary loan is waiting, do not mention what specific title it is unless you are directly talking to the person who made the request. If your policy or the law does not allow for any sharing of a child's information with their parents, it is very easy for a parent or guardian to come in to the library with their child and have their child ask for the information; the child may also call the library to ask for information about their account and then share it with whomever they please. If in doubt, follow the law on the books that may be enforced.

Disciplinary Actions

Outline what you will say to the employee when discussing the problem: actions to take, measures of progress and improvement, and possible consequences. At the second or third step in the policy and every step after, all written correspondence to the employee needs a copy signed by the employee stating they have received it placed in their personnel record. Warn employees of the consequences of their behavior, keeping consequences the same for all employees. The seriousness should fit the problem level of the behavior; only make big deals out of broken rules impacting the efficient operation of the library. If you are unsure of what to do for a particularly unusual or terrible incident, it is best to suspend the employee with pay until such time as the board and legal counsel can be consulted. You may want to give a particularly troublesome employee a few days off with pay to think about whether or not they want to work at the library.

"The talk with the employee should include the following five steps:

1. Get agreement from the employee that there is a problem.
2. Encourage the employee to find solutions and suggest changes in behavior to correct the actions.
3. Agree upon a solution that both you and the employee can follow.
4. Plan a follow-up meeting, review how work will be monitored, and agree to a time line for making the changes.
5. Recognize any achievement."4

Evaluation of Employees

Establish a comfortable environment for discussion. "Performance reviews are not about forms. They are about the communication between manager and employee for the purpose of looking at past performance, identifying ways to improve performance in the future, and planning for improvement."5 Plan on an hour with each employee for a good evaluation including setting goals for next year. Give each employee a copy of your evaluation at least one day before the meeting so the actual discussion contains no surprises for the employee and everyone is ready to talk about how things went last year and what can be improved on in the coming year. You and the employee must decide what success or failure is when setting goals then review the goals and progress at least every three months. The form provided covers library clerks or circulation staff and is based on the clerk job description from the Montana State Library, Both Word 2000 and PDF versions are available at evaluation.doc and evaluation.pdf respectively. You will want to adjust the form to your specific job descriptions adding areas covering management and programming for higher-level jobs. I do not recommend changing the four rating levels as this is a finely honed forced choice system. Employees are either doing well in an area or need to work on it and keeping four levels allows for both rewarding brilliant performances and encouraging employees to improve. The goals section is where the basics of any development plans are highlighted; create a separate form or just add an extra page if needed. If you want to look at overall areas, the form breaks down into work ethic, customer service, professional knowledge, and job skills areas.

* Work Ethic: performs assigned duties, demonstrates punctuality, works well with interruptions, progresses toward goals
* Customer Service: serves library patrons, displays tact and courtesy, works well with interruptions, communicates effectively
* Professional Knowledge: maintains confidentiality, reads widely across genres, communicates effectively, learns new procedures and technology
* Job Skills: processes materials, shelves and arranges materials, keeps library neat and orderly, demonstrates accuracy
Sample Evaluation Form (Word 2000)

Sample Evaluation Form (PDF)

During the performance review, primarily listen and guide. If you find yourself talking more than you are listening, the review has gone horribly awry — slow down, ask open-ended questions, and try to get back to the employee telling you how their job is going. Focus on how well the employee contributes to the library and to teamwork efforts where exceptional performance makes everyone around the employee better. Watch out for those employees that do nothing, but do it impeccably; being a good employee is an active job, not one where you just stay out of trouble and behave correctly. Also pay attention to system problems affecting employees differently since a barrier they have no control over may work to the advantage of one employee, but to the detriment of another equally as skilled.

"Open-ended questions work best to get employees talking and when both parties are calm and relatively unemotional." "Closed-ended questions fit well in situations where you need to exert a bit more control over the discussion — in situations where emotions run high. They are also excellent in beginning a process of creating agreements on small points to start building bridges of cooperation."6 Start with the organization's performance and work towards the employee's contribution to overall performance, linking this to their individual behavior to limit defensiveness by starting with the organization and not blaming the employee. Focus on agreement because neither of you are in this to win; when done well, both manager and employee come out of the evaluation with a plan to make themselves and the organization better. Vary the length of the goals so an employee is near completing a goal on a regular basis, making sure there is an end to each goal and a way to measure it. Be specific enough so both of you know where you are heading and provide the necessary resources to meet the goal. When the employee is finished have them present it to the rest of the staff, write it up, or be observed to verify they got it. If they are having troubles meeting a goal, they need to come to you — it is their goal and their responsibility.

Beware of tendencies that can skew your evaluation either positively or negatively: consider all areas of the employee's performance, consider the entire time period for which they are being evaluated, use the whole scale on any evaluation form, take into account the possibility that an employee's successes or failures resulted from happenstance and not from their actions, and listen to what the employee has to say as well since combining your view and theirs allows many of these biases to be canceled out. Make sure the completed evaluation forms are signed and dated by both of you, simply meaning that the two of you have read and discussed it. While performance reviews and other documentation on employees is a valuable guide for determining promotions and raises, remember they are also inaccurate. There is still no way to write down an objective and accurate assessment of a person.

You may also use this form at any time to give an employee an idea of where they currently stand. Filling out the form for an employee who is having trouble doing their job then discussing where the employee currently stands and what it will take to not receive a bad evaluation later gives them an opportunity to improve. Employees must be told where they are not measuring up and given a chance to remedy it while communicating praise for good work.

Interacting with the Media

Members of the media should be treated the same as everyone else using the library. Help them find what they are looking for, but do not interpret it. In general, the director will handle contacts from the media asking about the library or the library's position. Messages taken by staff must always mention what the person was calling about and not just their name and number. Always get back promptly to these requests. When you end up leaving a message in regards to a note, always mention the question you think you are answering as well as the answer, since the question you are answering is not always the same as what the media thought they asked.

Keep the library's name and a distinctive feature in the background of any TV interviews. If you cannot manage this, request the station put the library name on the bottom of the screen when airing the interview. Keep the library name in front of people as much as you can! Whatever the medium, make sure the library's contact information is also shared.

Materials Selection / Collection Development

Unsure of a new area you or your library is interested in expanding the collection into — visit the nearest large bookstore such as Barnes and Noble and browse through their collection in said area; there's nothing better than seeing the books or other material before ordering them. Keep up with the various book awards, especially the genre specific awards, to ensure adding in high quality titles in a variety of areas; easy links are collected by BookSpot in their Book Awards page, Shelve as many items as you can with their covers facing out so people browsing can see them; many decisions are made visually these days and we can help people by showing people the covers. Place signs on the shelves (shelf talkers) mentioning what is available, putting one for each new book in the regular stacks where it would be shelved if it wasn't already out (refer them to holds and reserves) or shelved in a new items area (point them to the area). Mention on other shelf talkers what is included in various areas of the nonfiction collection or what type of books an author writes. Most people prefer to find it on their own rather than ask for help and 80% or more will never talk to a librarian. Do what you can to help them: have as much information as you can without cluttering or overwhelming so people can navigate the stacks and use the library and provide a knowledgeable staff member in the stacks to answer questions or ask people who look lost or confused if they are finding things okay. Staff can be weeding, shelving, creating displays, shelf reading, or simply catching up on their library magazines in between helping folks. It's good to get up and exercise some every half hour during work anyway. :

Use your automation system to gather statistics about the people you serve: look for trends among what has been checking out regularly over the last couple of years, know who the most popular authors are at your library doing your best to provide all of their books even filling in your collection where it is lacking, and know what subject areas or Dewey numbers are the most popular with your patrons. Any section of the collection checking out as many times in a month as there are items needs to be expanded. You can usually break down the Dewey numbers and look at what has checked out the most in each 100's or 10's of the classification. The most popular areas receive the most attention from you and are kept as up-to-date as possible, trying to fill in gaps and make sure you have all the basic titles.

Never expand the scope of materials the library collects beyond your budget. Start with books in regular and large print and do not add in music and videos if you can't afford to get a copy of all of the high demand books. While music and computer software are nice for a library to offer its patrons, books are the core of your collection, including audio books. If people are interested in having paperbacks, purchase paperbacks; they won't last as long, but they cost very little and many library books only see use for their first few years today. Paperbacks are especially appropriate in young adult, romance, and science fiction and fantasy collections. People spend more hours driving each and every year and being able to listen, learn, and be entertained by a book while on the road is priceless. Newer vehicles are coming exclusively with CD players, so be sure to adjust your audio book purchasing accordingly. We are also becoming a visual society, receiving the majority of our news and entertainment off of the television, therefore videos are starting to become a required component of the public library's collection. Look at what video stores you have in your area and try take over where they leave off — many PBS and BBC series have a huge following and will rapidly and continually go out of even small libraries. Try to get a true mix of videos: from blockbusters, especially those based off books, to crafts and home repair, travel, biography, Hallmark Hall of Fame, classic literature, and more. When looking at statistics, differing check out periods will greatly affect the amount of times an item can check out. Videos often have shorter check out periods than books and therefore can circulate two or three times for each time a book can; expect them to circulate two or three times more than a popular book. If there is a huge demand for a new or different format, look into getting donations from citizens or writing grants to expand the collection and meet demand.

Always welcome comments on and suggestions for items in the collection. Objections to items in, or not in, the collection should be made in writing to the director. Materials no longer meeting the needs of the community or no longer supporting the library's collection will be withdrawn; make sure you thoroughly weed the entire collection over the course of every two years. If a "local court of competent jurisdiction has ruled against the material" the library will remove it; only a local court can rule on whether an item is obscene or harmful to minors.7

Problem Resolution / Grievance

Include a form similar to that found earlier for harassment complaints. The first step is always to talk with the person, preferably after allowing time for the initial emotions to pass — communicating with your coworkers is extremely important since no one can adjust their behavior unless they know it causes a problem. The next step is always to talk with your supervisor about the problem then give them time to work through to a solution. If you have already tried these steps and nothing has improved, fill out the form and submit it to the director or board.

Staff and Volunteer Development and Training

Try to build up your staff and volunteers through development and training, promoting from within whenever possible — this is a huge motivational factor for people working at the library encouraging them to put the time and effort into bettering themselves, working toward goals, and improving the library. Those hired from within also do not have an adjustment period to get to know the library and must only adjust to their new tasks and core skills. Every staff member needs the opportunity to learn and develop in core competencies of customer service, information design and provision, supervisory skills and tools, information teaching and evaluation, technology, and workplace effectiveness. Memberships in different professional organizations allow employees to share materials they get with everyone on library staff through a routing list where each employee has a chance to look the material over in turn. Share pertinent materials with the board, especially current developments in the public library field.

Orientation for new employees or volunteers imparts an understanding of the library's role in the community, services offered, responsibilities and duties of the board and the staff, and current mission, goals and objectives of the library; cover what is expected of them explaining what is written in their job description and answering any questions. Include a tour, time to meet the other employees, and a hard copy of policies, procedures, and other instructions. Meeting the social needs of your new employee is of the utmost importance, so have a workspace ready and supplied for them and allow plenty of time for them to get to know the other employees. See the Ohio Library Council's Orientation module at Mentor each new employee with an experienced library employee (each new volunteer with an experience library volunteer) and match their schedules to help your new folk and see they are getting their questions answered and learning the correct procedures. A complete schedule for training library employees can be found at from the St. Charles District Library; you can follow the class links for information and homework assignments.

Innovative Services Model (ISM) — adapted from the San Jose Public Library, Calif.

* Be the Customer
* Everyone a Teacher
* Everyone Serves Youth
* Develop Flexible Cross-Trained Employees

To succeed, administration must identify resources allowing staff time to be trained, cultivate an environment where staff are supported in assuming responsibility for their own training, and value their staff leading to staff valuing the patrons. Expected outcome will be a successful, more coordinated approach to training resulting in staff members who are better prepared to offer excellent customer service.

Termination of Employment

Firing an employee is a last resort, but when termination is reached be firm since any period for negotiation or improvement has passed — do not argue or negotiate. Be prepared for crying, begging, shock, or indignation; simply inform the fired employee of their right to COBRA, unemployment, and verification of their time employed with you. Respect them and work to get them focused on their future while remaining calm and professional no matter their reaction. Make arrangements for retrieving any company property in their possession and tell them you will mail their final paychecks. Maintain a concerned and sympathetic air as they gather their things and exit the building. Involve a human resources professional or attorney in the decision process and do not discuss the termination with anyone but them! All employees must be treated the same: do not fire them in public or with their coworkers present and never let them back on their computer. If a lawsuit is filed do not discuss it with the fired employee but contact your library's attorney.

For employees who quit inform them of their right to COBRA, the possibility for unemployment, and any references or verification of their employment you will give. Make arrangements to retrieve keys, to retrieve other library property, and to mail their final paychecks, having the employee leave any codes or passwords they used in the library. For retiring employees have them fill out any paperwork for pensions, retirement, and other benefits and give them a great sendoff for their work at the library. Remember to collect any keys, codes, or passwords they have.

Working Conditions and Standards

Limit the distance staff have to walk between regular, repetitive tasks and be sure to provide plenty of counter and table space, at the correct height, for staff to work on projects. Library employees have much to do, so it makes sense to bring small tasks to the circulation or service desk, i.e. catching up on library e-mail, pre-order searching, checking review sources, fixing cataloging errors, and updating spine labels. Whatever is brought to the desk should only take up a small amount of counter space, allow staff to be easily interrupted, and be removed when they leave the desk. Look up often whenever and wherever you're working!

Patron Procedures


All of the behavior guidelines in your behavior policy also apply to patron interactions with staff — do not tolerate abusive language or behavior toward yourself or other staff. An alternative enforcement strategy for those failing to follow the behavior policy is:

1st time kicked out = can't return until the next day

2nd time kicked out = can't return until they do one hour of library service

3rd time kicked out = can't return until they do two hours of library service

4th time kicked out = can't return until they do four hours of library service

5th time kicked out = can't return until they do eight hours of library service, etc.

continue doubling the hours of service required before those violating the policy earn back their privileges

Fees and Fines

Not all overdue items are truly overdue as material will slip past staff and end up being shelved while the computer believes it to be checked out. When patrons disagree on an overdue, check the shelves and return any items you find there with no fine. Always be willing to work with people on paying their overdue fines and other charges, listening to their explanation and arranging payments or even halving the fines — all employees should be trusted enough to do this. Damage so severe the entire item needs to be replaced should be billed to the patron unless the item was old or partially damaged, then bill them a set fee or percentage and write the rest off as collection depreciation. Be willing to accept a replacement copy in good condition instead of money. Some people are totally sure they returned an item even if it cannot be found in the library; accept this and ask them to look for it at home anyway just in case as an amazing number of things turn up in time. If the contested item never appears at the library, strike it from their account making a note in their record.

Setting shorter circulation periods and longer grace periods before fines start accumulating makes for much happier patrons; staff like being able to give people good news like the book due last week doesn't have the fine the patron was dreading. Charge twice the cost of supplies for copies or printing to cover those pages patrons do not want to keep or leave without paying for. Let people only pay for what they use, removing worries about printing mistakes or copier difficulties. With programs only charge what it costs to put the program on, unless it is a clearly designated library fundraiser; you can cover most programs with grants or with donations from local businesses and groups.

Freedom of Information

Develop a simple freedom of information form for requesting library records and designate a staff member, likely the director, to handle all Freedom of Information Act requests and respond to them within the designated time limit. Determine a charge for the staff time and copying involved in responding to requests, simply doubling your normal per page copying fee if you like to take into account staff time. When important discussions are occurring, gather information surrounding the matter and the minutes of related meetings before people ask for it; you're now ready to respond immediately when the questions follow.

Gifts and Donations

All gifts should be encouraged and appreciated; don't look a gift book along the spine, but feel free to refuse old magazines or moldy or destroyed items. It is a good idea to have a swap area in the library for items you are not likely to use or be able to sell, since it is startling what free things people enjoy.

Sample Receipt

On _(date) the ___ Library received _ from _ as a donation. Donations to the library will be used as best fits the library, its services, and its collections. There is a small chance this might even include ending up recycled or in a dumpster. Thank you for your support of _ Library.


Employee Signature

Hours and Closings

Give the staff input into the setting of library hours as they know when the library is busiest and everything else going on in their lives outside work. If weather or other unexpected occurrences necessitate an emergency closing contact the local radio and TV stations to let them know, put a sign in your entrance door stating why the library is closed and when it is expected to reopen, and change your voice mail message and web site so they share this information. See a sample emergency closing procedure at from the Dedham Public Library.

Internet Access and Computers

Once a waiting list forms, inform those longest on the computers that they have five minutes to finish up. Turn off the monitor if they refuse to give up the computer — there's less incentive to argue over worthless access. Work to make this the only staff intervention required in your computer sign up procedure. People will bring in their own floppy disks, USB drives, CD's, and more to use with your computers and want to install programs and web browser plug ins. You need an anti-virus program and a way to control access to the system files anyway, so make sure your setup can handle people bringing in their own software and files — look into Centurion Guard or DeepFreeze software to allow patrons full access and give staff a simple reboot to get back all library settings. Provide disks at the front desk for a small fee and remind people to save their work often and to save it to a disk if they want to work on it more at a later time. If you can get people to bring in their own headphones to listen to sound, the library can save itself a recurring expense as headphones break or disappear, otherwise require people to leave an ID at the desk, or kids to leave a shoe, in exchange for the headphones. If you let people use laptops or network cards in the library, keeping a driver's license as collateral is highly recommended too. Whatever you do, avoid monitors or computers with built in speakers; unless the computer is to be used for presentations speakers are just another annoyance. Find excellent tutorials for using Windows, using a mouse or keyboard, typing, basic word processing, e-mail, etc. (Tell Me How is a great option on many Dell computers) and have these available and obviously displayed on your computers or web page. Creating easy ways for patrons to do it themselves will save hours of staff time and aggravation.

Sample Meeting Room Application

___ Library Meeting Room Application

Dates requested:

Start time: End time:


Person applying:


Business phone: Home phone:

President of group (if different from above):

Name of meeting (for library calendar):

Subject of meeting:

Expected attendance: ( max. capacity)

Library equipment needed:

The applicant agrees to handle all set up and to return the meeting room to a clean and orderly condition at the end of the activity. Any damage to the room arising from the use by any individual or organization shall be billed directly to the individual who secured use of the room. The library is not responsible for damage or loss of materials used or left in the building.

Signature: Date:


Volunteers and members of the Friends can help with sales or collecting fees associated with library programming and often enjoy showing speakers and authors around the community. Try not to bother the public and definitely do not do it right when they enter; leave donating, signing forms, and reading handouts to the patron's discretion. People are extremely capable of finding and using information if it is made visible and easy to take. At times it will be necessary to let people entering know about a new library policy or ask people leaving to fill out a quick library survey to get feedback always remembering that it is okay for them to say no.

Suggestions and Complaints

Be sure to spell out procedures for complaints and challenges. This can be as simple as putting, "Please explain your suggestion or complaint on this page and sign," at the top of a blank sheet of paper. People have the option of leaving their contact information if they desire a personal response.

The director should maintain an open door policy. "Appointments to meet with the Director are encouraged, but not required. The Library Director or appropriate staff will respond to letters or telephone calls within five workdays. Comments placed in the library's suggestion box will receive a personal response if desired. Comments of general interest may also be addressed in the library newsletter" or on the bulletin board.8 If someone is not satisfied with the response they receive from the staff or director, they may submit their suggestion or complaint to the board along with the response they received from the library staff. The board discusses the suggestion or complaint at their next regular meeting and then responds to the patron.

Sample Suggestion Form

___ Library Suggestion

Please explain your suggestion or complaint on this form and sign. The library director or staff will respond to this form. Include your contact information if you would like a personal reply. If you are not satisfied with their response, you can resubmit the form with the staff comments to the library board for action at their next regular meeting.

Signature: Date:

Print name:

Contact info:

Unattended Children

Post a sign stating the library is not responsible for unattended children. Create a list of day care options and contact information, including low income or subsidized childcare, for any parent who has to leave the library because of their child. Calm down distressed children and sit with them until they can remember where they are supposed to be or give you a name and number to contact. Develop a plan for dealing with children who were supposed to be at the library and either never arrived or left before their parents came for them.

Financial Procedures

The Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, in Managing the Library's Money, covers basic financial procedures online at

Disposal of Equipment

Yarra Plenty Regional Library, in their collection development policy, covers the disposal of library items: "Once the decision is taken to discard the item, all library identification markings are removed or are stamped 'cancelled' or 'withdrawn' before it is sent for disposal. Materials in very poor physical condition will be destroyed. All other materials, including unwanted donations may be given to recognised social or civic organizations, transferred to other library systems, or sold to the public at a bookstall run by the library service, or from any of the permanent sale trolleys maintained in individual branch libraries."9 Be sure to remove any memorial, donated by, or in honor of information before discarding or selling materials.

Valuable equipment no longer of use should be auctioned off by making a list of equipment and the procedure for placing a bid available to the public. Allow the board the discretion to donate equipment to other libraries, government agencies, or nonprofits. An application for groups to apply for equipment should be publicized and a decision made at the next board meeting.

Sample Petty Cash Procedures

Cash on hand and receipts must always equal $100.00. Overages, shortages, and lost or stolen funds must be immediately reported. All library funds are kept in a locked drawer or safe with limited, controlled access where only the employee responsible for the funds and supervisors have keys or know the combination. Public libraries should never pay sales tax on purchases as they are tax-exempt government organizations.

Purchasing / Bidding

Consult with your local government on regulations specific to your area. In general, the bid notice must be posted at the library or local government office and two notices placed in a local newspaper with the last notice appearing at least one week prior to the opening of bids. If no bids are received, discuss the proposal with potential local bidders to determine why they did not bid then adjust the bid and advertise again, possibly expanding to regional papers or trade journals.


1. Sandra Nelson and June Garcia, Creating Policies for Results: From Chaos to Clarity (Chicago: American Library Association, 2003):106.
2. Cathleen A. Towey, "Considering Attitude and Values in Hiring Public Librarians," Public Libraries 43:5 (September/October 2004): 260-261.
3. Jeanette Larson and Herman L. Totten, Model Policies for Small and Medium Public Libraries (New York: Neal-Schuman, 1998): 104.
4. Joan Giesecke, Practical Help for New Supervisors, Third Edition (Chicago: American Library Association, 1997): 28-29.
5. Robert Bacal, Manager's Guide to Performance Reviews (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004): 51.
6. Robert Bacal, Manager's Guide to Performance Reviews (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004): 156-157.
7. Jeanette Larson and Herman L. Totten, Model Policies for Small and Medium Public Libraries (New York: Neal-Schuman, 1998): 96.
8. Jeanette Larson and Herman L. Totten, Model Policies for Small and Medium Public Libraries (New York: Neal-Schuman, 1998): 54.
9. Collection Development Policy, available at Accessed 1 September 2004.


* Bacal, Robert. Manager's Guide to Performance Reviews. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.
* Giesecke, Joan. Practical Help for New Supervisors, Third Edition. Chicago: American Library Association, 1997.
* Larson, Jeanette and Herman L. Totten. Model Policies for Small and Medium Public Libraries. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1998.

© Edward J. Elsner, 2005

Edward Elsner Library Consulting

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